At the same time, the costs of today’s clean energy technologies have never been lower. Let’s make sure we’re committed to what lies beyond Paris. Continuing such population growth seems unsustainable. It’s about ensuring energy security, expanding access to reliable and affordable energy, and spurring economic growth that creates jobs and protects the planet. Similarly, employing more efficient refrigerators, air conditioners and other appliances, such as those rated highly under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star program, can cut electric bills while something as simple as weatherproofing the windows of a home can reduce heating and cooling bills. World leaders are gathering in Paris this week for the 21st United Nations climate conference, known as COP21. A few of the panelist from across the series told the Gazette why an interdisciplinary approach to solving problems is so critical. The U.N. Environmental Program estimates that it requires 54 acres to sustain an average human being today—food, clothing and other resources extracted from the planet. Renewable energies like solar, wind, biomass and geothermal. What are the alternatives? Good driving—and good car maintenance, such as making sure tires are properly inflated—can limit the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from a vehicle and, perhaps more importantly, lower the frequency of payment at the pump. Light bulbs may sound small, but they have a big impact; an overnight global transition to highly efficient LED lamps could avoid carbon dioxide emissions equivalent to displacing nearly 250 coal-fired power plants. I believe that clean energy innovation is the solution to climate change. This high-impact effort will launch a race to reach cumulative global sales of 10 billion high-efficiency, high-quality and affordable lighting products (such as LEDs) as quickly as possible. Climate change increases the odds of worsening drought in many parts of the United States and the world in the decades ahead. Flights are also one of the few sources of globe-warming pollution for which there isn't already a viable alternative: jets rely on kerosene, because it packs the most energy per pound, allowing them to travel far and fast, yet it takes roughly 10 gallons of oil to make one gallon of JetA fuel. But should such individual and national efforts fail, there is another, potentially desperate solution: Experiment Earth—Climate change represents humanity's first planetwide experiment. Because research is … Solving any problem takes time. Additional reporting by Larry Greenemeier and Nikhil Swaminathan. We need more of it, and we need it faster. One Child—There are at least 6.6 billion people living today, a number that is predicted by the United Nations to grow to at least nine billion by mid-century. David Biello is a contributing editor at Scientific American. Unplug—Believe it or not, U.S. citizens spend more money on electricity to power devices when off than when on. Eat Smart, Go Vegetarian?—Corn grown in the U.S. requires barrels of oil for the fertilizer to grow it and the diesel fuel to harvest and transport it. To that end, next year, the United States will host the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) in June. : Premium Gasoline Delivers Premium Benefits to Your Car. Whether by forgoing an automobile or employing a reusable grocery sack, cutting back on consumption results in fewer fossil fuels being burned to extract, produce and ship products around the globe. Electric grids are at capacity or overloaded, but power demands continue to rise. Subscribers get more award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. With climate change, it took scientists about 40 years to to gain any sort of understanding of the problem. “Climate change is a risk management problem,” said Kousky. In doing so he outlines the overwhelming evidence that change is happening … stated in “limate hange Effects- Where to To take but one example, efficient battery chargers could save more than one billion kilowatt-hours of electricity—$100 million at today's electricity prices—and thus prevent the release of more than one million metric tons of greenhouse gases. Solutions to the climate crisis are not true or false, or good or bad. All may have unintended consequences, making the solution worse than the original problem. University of Chicago researchers estimate that each meat-eating American produces 1.5 tons more greenhouse gases through their food choice than do their vegetarian peers. Take a look at the labels on your appliances, and never leave them on standby. Not all are right for everybody. Foodstuffs often bear some nutritional information, but there is little to reveal how far a head of lettuce, for example, has traveled. Together, these two initiatives establish clean energy innovation as a foundation for environmental stewardship, prosperity, security and social responsibility. Texas GOP, Dems tried to solve a climate change problem together 10 years ago. Effects of Climate Change Climate change has affected many aspects of our planet. Read on to learn more about how we can beat climate change. The enormity of global warming can be daunting and dispiriting. For instance, if you are in the market for a new car, buy one that will last the longest and have the least impact on the environment. A startling new report on climate change was released in early 2014. The calculations contribute both to an understanding of observed properties and the exploration of how the climate will change … Move Closer to Work—Transportation is the second leading source of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. (burning a single gallon of gasoline produces 20 pounds of CO2). Restricting flying to only critical, long-distance trips—in many parts of the world, trains can replace planes for short- to medium-distance trips—would help curb airplane emissions. The solutions above offer the outline of a plan to personally avoid contributing to global warming. But it is clear that more humans means more greenhouse gas emissions. There are a number of ways climate change may contribute to drought. ... brought … Control Population: Yes, if the population is controlled, then climate change can also be controlled. Coal is the substrate, supplying roughly half of the electricity used in the U.S. and nearly that much worldwide—a percentage that is likely to grow, according to the International Energy Agency. Some you may already be doing or absolutely abhor. Forest preservation and reforestation should be handled separately from fossil fuels in a sound approach to solve the climate problem. I will announce the host city and state on Tuesday, December 8. That represents 20 percent of human-made greenhouse gas emissions and a source that could be avoided relatively easily. Yet without an international deal that sets targets for all, no one nation can be certain that others will pull their weight. Sometimes buying more means consuming less. Paradoxically, when purchasing essentials, such as groceries, buying in bulk can reduce the amount of packaging—plastic wrapping, cardboard boxes and other unnecessary materials. Additionally, we will be making announcements around several CEM initiatives including the Global Lighting Challenge. As we have seen, innovation also drives the cost reduction necessary to transform global energy markets. Global climate change may be the biggest challenge facing humanity, and it is a problem that illustrates the world-changing implications of interdisciplinary problem-solving. Televisions, stereo equipment, computers, battery chargers and a host of other gadgets and appliances consume more energy when seemingly switched off, so unplug them instead. Biofuels can have a host of negative impacts, from driving up food prices to sucking up more energy than they produce. Be Efficient—A potentially simpler and even bigger impact can be made by doing more with less. Biodiesel hybrid electric vehicles (that can plug into the grid overnight) may offer the best transportation solution in the short term, given the energy density of diesel and the carbon neutral ramifications of fuel from plants as well as the emissions of electric engines. Ten possibilities for staving off catastrophic climate change. Ultimately, a one child per couple rule is not sustainable either and there is no perfect number for human population. In Romania, for instance, extreme weather events have multiplied since 2002. urghila et al. But it doesn't have to be that way. There is also the option of working from home and telecommuting several days a week. Open NASA facilities to "green tech" companies. But even this unprecedented international effort by the public and private sectors is just one step on the long road ahead. Confronting Climate Change Climate change is exacerbating many of the environment issues we currently face. Investing in new infrastructure, or radically upgrading existing highways and transmission lines, would help cut greenhouse gas emissions and drive economic growth in developing countries. That is no coincidence. But energy-efficient buildings and improved cement-making processes (such as using alternative fuels to fire up the kiln) could reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the developed world and prevent them in the developing world. Massive investment in low-emission energy generation, whether solar-thermal power or nuclear fission, would be required to radically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Explore our digital archive back to 1845, including articles by more than 150 Nobel Prize winners. That’s why scientists and policymakers are exploring how intentional climate interventions, also called geoengineering or climate engineering , can help us combat the worst effects of climate change. But implementing just a few of them could make a difference. Falling birth rates in some developed and developing countries (a significant portion of which are due to government-imposed limits on the number of children a couple can have) have begun to reduce or reverse the population explosion. … In the 1990s, the best way to deal … Getting 194 nations to agree on anything, let alone a re-tooling of the global energy system that drives economies, is fiendish. Such efforts can also be usefully employed at work, whether that means installing more efficient turbines at the power plant or turning the lights off when you leave the office. Climate Change is the defining issue of our time and we are at a defining moment. Thus, a used vehicle with a hybrid engine offers superior fuel efficiency over the long haul while saving the environmental impact of new car manufacture. It didn't mention exact dates or specific forecasts for the future, but it did foreshadow consequences of climate change … Future Fuels—Replacing fossil fuels may prove the great challenge of the 21st century. One aspect that has been greatly affected by climate change is the weather. It’s clear the world is ready to act on climate in Paris. But just as ecologist Stephen Pacala and physicist Robert Socolow, both at Princeton University, came up with 15 so-called "wedges" for nations to utilize toward this goal—each of which is challenging but feasible and, in some combination, could reduce greenhouse gas emissions to safer levels—there are personal lifestyle changes that you can make too that, in some combination, can help reduce your carbon impact. climate change is one of the most important issues on the global political and economic agenda, yet it has taken at least 20 years to become an international priority. And meat, whether beef, chicken or pork, requires pounds of feed to produce a pound of protein. So-called geoengineering, radical interventions to either block sunlight or reduce greenhouse gases, is a potential last resort for addressing the challenge of climate change. © 2021 Scientific American, a Division of Springer Nature America, Inc. Support our award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. Our mission: Secure an ambitious global agreement to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and minimize climate change. That scientists developed safe, effective COVID-19 vaccines in less than a year is evidence of our untapped potential to solve global problems. Cutting down on long-distance travel would also help, most notably airplane flights, which are one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions and a source that arguably releases such emissions in the worst possible spot (higher in the atmosphere). Fossil fuels need to be quickly replaced with cleaner, renewable energy like wind and solar power. They also recognize the tremendous economic benefits that await investors in the transformative energy technologies of tomorrow. There are no perfect solutions for reducing dependence on fossil fuels (for example, carbon neutral biofuels can drive up the price of food and lead to forest destruction, and while nuclear power does not emit greenhouse gases, it does produce radioactive waste), but every bit counts. It remains unclear how many people the planet can comfortably sustain, but it is clear that per capita energy consumption must go down if climate change is to be controlled. Nadia Milad Issa, M.T.S. Discover world-changing science. The global momentum to tackle climate change has never been stronger. costs of today’s clean energy technologies have never been lower. James Hansen Why I must speak out about climate change Top climate scientist James Hansen tells the story of his involvement in the science of and debate over global climate change. Infrastructure Upgrade—Buildings worldwide contribute around one third of all greenhouse gas emissions (43 percent in the U.S. alone), even though investing in thicker insulation and other cost-effective, temperature-regulating steps can save money in the long run. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to safer levels, supplying roughly half of the electricity, turning the lights off when you leave the office, 54 acres to sustain an average human being, China's Xi Outshines Trump as the World's Future Energy Leader, Fact or Fiction? Many contenders exist, ranging from ethanol derived from crops to hydrogen electrolyzed out of water, but all of them have some drawbacks, too, and none are immediately available at the scale needed. Climate change in Africa is an increasingly serious threat for Africans as Africa is among the most vulnerable continents to climate change. So-called geoengineering, radical interventions to either block sunlight or reduce greenhouse gases, is a potential last resort for addressing the challenge of climate change. The Amazon and other forests are not just the lungs of the earth, they may also be humanity's best short-term hope for limiting climate change. Solving climate change is about the human spirit and our ability to tackle shared challenges together. 1000 Independence Ave. SWWashington DC 20585202-586-5000. in many ways, this is because climate change was originally communicated as a scientific problem. Bill Gates and dozens of the world’s most prominent investors committed to do the same through a parallel initiative called the Breakthrough Energy Coalition. Such carbon capture and storage is critical to any serious effort to combat climate change. Governments and companies need to further invest in low carbon transport solutions. In fact, according to the EPA, replacing just one incandescent lightbulb in every American home would save enough energy to provide electricity to three million American homes. World leaders are gathering in Paris this week for the 21st United Nations climate conference, known as COP21. Some grocery stores stock organic produce that do not require such fertilizers, but it is often shipped from halfway across the globe. This group is dedicated to advancing clean energy around the world. We’re also seeking innovative ways to solve current problems and prevent new threats from emerging. Oil is the lubricant of the global economy, hidden inside such ubiquitous items as plastic and corn, and fundamental to the transportation of both consumers and goods. 7 Ways Marketers Can Prioritize Climate Change Brands are in a powerful position to make an impact Marketers love solving problems, and there’s no bigger problem to solve than the climate. And it’s not just governments. Forego Fossil Fuels—The first challenge is eliminating the burning of coal, oil and, eventually, natural gas. Improved agricultural practices along with paper recycling and forest management—balancing the amount of wood taken out with the amount of new trees growing—could quickly eliminate this significant chunk of emissions. And that’s fair — humans had to first study the climate to make sure climate change existed, then study the causes of climate change … Swapping old incandescent lightbulbs for more efficient replacements, such as compact fluorescents (warning: these lightbulbs contain mercury and must be properly disposed of at the end of their long life), would save billions of kilowatt-hours. As negotiators hammer out the details of an agreement, I will be meeting with energy ministers, mayors, executives and other leaders to champion the clean energy solutions that are vital to reducing carbon emissions worldwide. Outstanding leadership is needed from the big players such as the US and China when talks resume on 28 November. Its about ensuring energy security, expanding access to reliable and affordable energy, and spurring economic growth that creates jobs and protects the planet. This is perhaps the most daunting challenge as denizens of richer nations literally eat, wear, work, play and even sleep on the products made from such fossilized sunshine. Stop Cutting Down Trees—Every year, 33 million acres of forests are cut down. But it is clear that at least some form of geoengineering will likely be required: capturing carbon dioxide before it is released and storing it in some fashion, either deep beneath the earth, at the bottom of the ocean or in carbonate minerals. This initiative, called Mission Innovation, seeks to ensure continued improvements in energy technology decades down the road. It poses a significant long-term threat that demands our collective action to prevent its root causes and cope with its impacts. Hydrogen must be created, requiring either reforming natural gas or electricity to crack water molecules. The climate challenge is more than any one government can solve alone. Among the ideas: releasing sulfate particles in the air to mimic the cooling effects of a massive volcanic eruption; placing millions of small mirrors or lenses in space to deflect sunlight; covering portions of the planet with reflective films to bounce sunlight back into space; fertilizing the oceans with iron or other nutrients to enable plankton to absorb more carbon; and increasing cloud cover or the reflectivity of clouds that already form. Purchasing energy-efficient gadgets can also save both energy and money—and thus prevent more greenhouse gas emissions. And even more speculative energy sources—hyperefficient photovoltaic cells, solar energy stations in orbit or even fusion—may ultimately be required. Climate change is the disruption in the long-term seasonal weather patterns that are caused by global warming.As of August 2020, the average temperature has risen over 1 degree Celsius, or about 2 degrees Fahrenheit, since 1880. Think green when making purchases. A recent study found that the present amount of electricity generation in the U.S. could provide enough energy for the country's entire fleet of automobiles to switch to plug-in hybrids, reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the process. But, if all else fails, it may not be the last. And when purchasing wood products, such as furniture or flooring, buy used goods or, failing that, wood certified to have been sustainably harvested. And bad roads can lower the fuel economy of even the most efficient vehicle. The first way to prevent climate change is to move away from fossil fuels. Citizens of many developed countries are profligate wasters of energy, whether by speeding in a gas-guzzling sport-utility vehicle or leaving the lights on when not in a room. Solutions to Environmental Problems (STEP) courses bring together students, faculty, staff and community partners in discussion and action to advance sustainability. Always adjust the thermostat for heating… Of course, it takes a lot of cement, a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, to construct new buildings and roads. The U.S. alone contributed 50.7 million metric tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in 2005 from cement production, which requires heating limestone and other ingredients to 1,450 degrees Celsius (2,642 degrees Fahrenheit). But plug-in hybrids would still rely on electricity, now predominantly generated by burning dirty coal. Then it unraveled. For all of that, we need innovation. These commitments -- in the billions of dollars -- are a major step to ensure we have continued breakthroughs and cost reduction in the future. If there ever was a problem that’s hard to solve, it’s climate change. Climate change is both a global problem and a local problem, and its impacts have implications for and interact with nearly every sector of human activity, including energy and food production, water and other natural resources, human health, business and industrial activities, and, in turn, political stability and international security. So try to employ alternatives when possible—plant-derived plastics, biodiesel, wind power—and to invest in the change, be it by divesting from oil stocks or investing in companies practicing carbon capture and storage. What can one person, or even one nation, do on their own to slow and reverse climate change? Regions such as the U.S. Southwest are at particular risk. One way to dramatically curtail transportation fuel needs is to move closer to work, use mass transit, or switch to walking, cycling or some other mode of transport that does not require anything other than human energy. Choosing food items that balance nutrition, taste and ecological impact is no easy task. And citizens of developing nations want and arguably deserve the same comforts, which are largely thanks to the energy stored in such fuels. Climate economic studies convincingly show that one of the best investments to fix climate in the medium run is to invest heavily in green R&D. Mining copper and other elements needed for electrical wiring and transmission also causes globe-warming pollution. Developing countries contribute to a large share of pollution. What comes after a deal in Paris is just as important as the deal itself. Not only will we need to make good on our commitments in Paris, we must work with international partners to accelerate the global transition to clean energy. Fixing problems related to climate change will likely require a wide range of solutions. … James Osborne Dec. 10, 2020 Updated: Dec. 10, 2020 3:35 p.m. Timber harvesting in the tropics alone contributes 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon to the atmosphere. … NASA should be allowed to open its facilities and … Climate models are mathematical descriptions of the Earth’s climate, and they require computational systems to manage the calculations and data to replicate the climate system. That is why President Obama announced last week that the U.S. and 19 other nations are seeking to double our investment in clean energy R&D by 2020. This important meeting will serve as a key milestone in our work after Paris to help countries reach their climate goals. Our mission: Secure an ambitious global agreement to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and minimize climate change. 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